Other Diseases


  • This is the most common form of hypothyroidism in the United States.
  • It is caused by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which are present throughout your lifetime and there is a genetic predisposition to Hashimoto’s Disease.
  • The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies may cause a high thyroid function, a low thyroid function, goiters, thyroid nodules and increase your chance of having other autoimmune problems (Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Type I Diabetes, low adrenal function, etc.).
  • For diagnosis and treatment, see “Hypothyroidism” above.


  • This is the most common form of autoimmune hyperthyroidism in the United States.
  • It is caused by a specific antibody against the thyroid gland. Graves’ Disease may be very dangerous and calls for immediate assessment and treatment by an endocrinologist specializing in thyroid disease.
  • It is of utmost importance that the assessment should be done as soon as the disease is discovered.
  • Failure to do so can lead to serious complications, such as atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, and severe infections.
  • People with Graves’ Disease may be at risk for other autoimmune problems (see above for “Hashimoto”).
  • For diagnosis and treatment, see “Hyperthyroidism” above.


  • These growths are commonly found in thyroid glands, and an estimated 55 percent of the population may suffer from them.
  • Only 5 to 10 percent of these nodules are at risk of cancer, so it is important to have a thyroid ultrasound and a Fine Needle Aspiration (biopsy) of the nodule.
  • At our clinic, we perform these ultrasounds onsite with immediate interpretation and Fine Needle Aspirations which include genetic assessments for cancerous thyroid nodules.
  • Risk factors for cancerous thyroid nodules: history of cancer radiation to the head and neck, history of childhood radiation for acne in people born before 1960, and a personal history of cancer.
  • Sometimes your physician may order a thyroid scan and uptake to determine whether the nodule is “cold” (at a higher risk of cancer) or “hot” (at a lower risk of cancer).


  • Goiter stands for the enlargement of the thyroid gland, and may have different causes including Hashimoto, Graves, iodine deficiency or excess, low and high thyroid levels, etc.
  • Both patients and physicians should be aware that the goiter may harbor a thyroid nodule, which is detected by a thyroid ultrasound (see under “Thyroid Nodules”).


  • Thyroid cancer has the fastest-growing incidents of new cancer cases in the United States.
  • There are four types: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. The most common is papillary and the second-most common is follicular. Papillary thyroid cancers have excellent prognoses with survival rates above 90 percent.
  • It is of utmost importance that each thyroid nodule should be assessed for the need for biopsy for the immediate diagnosis of cancer (reword).
  • Treatments for thyroid cancer include surgery followed by radioactive iodine treatment in selective cases. New guidelines released in 2015 recommend that radioactive iodine should be used only in more severe forms of cancer due to the risk of leukemia.
  • Scumpia has extensive experience treating thyroid cancers, with a history of thousands of cases (reword).
  • Our clinic expedites the assessment of thyroid nodules with immediate thyroid ultrasounds followed by FNA and fast-track to surgery and radioactive iodine if needed.
  • We are the only endocrine office that administers radioactive iodine onsite, reducing anxiety for patients.